Multiple sclerosis (MS)
MS is a chronic autoimmune disease characterized by the progressive infiltration of inflammatory cells to the central nervous system (CNS), demyelination and axonal damage. MS is highly heterogeneous, and the combination of environmental and genetic risk factors is involved.
- MS can be discovered incidentally on MRI as a radiologically isolated syndrome (RIS).
- It then usually manifests as a clinically isolated syndrome (CIS),
- which is followed by a relapsing-remitting stage, characterized by discrete episodes of neurologic dysfunction with remission.
- The progressive stage involves steadily worsening disability and usually evolves from the relapsingremitting stage, although some patients may have progressive disease from onset (primary progressive MS).
- 5 preparations of interferon beta;
- 2 preparations of glatiramer acetate;
- The monoclonal antibodies natalizumab, alemtuzumab, daclizumab, and ocrelizumab (the first B-cell–targeted therapy)
- The chemotherapeutic agent mitoxantrone
- The small-molecule oral agents fingolimod, dimethyl fumarate, and teriflunomide.
Anti-EBNA, KFLC, NCAM1, MMP9, MBP, MMP9, SPP1, CXCL13, GFAP, BDNF, IL-17, BAFF, TNF, IL-12, GWAS genes and more.
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